He is regarded as national poet in Poland , Lithuania and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism , he is counted as one of Poland's " Three Bards " " Trzej Wieszcze "  and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady Forefathers' Eve and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. All these served as inspiration for uprisings against the three imperial powers that had partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth out of existence.
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He is regarded as national poet in Poland , Lithuania and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism , he is counted as one of Poland's " Three Bards " " Trzej Wieszcze "  and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet.
He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady Forefathers' Eve and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. All these served as inspiration for uprisings against the three imperial powers that had partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth out of existence.
Mickiewicz was born in the Russian-partitioned territories of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania , which had been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , and was active in the struggle to win independence for his home region. After, as a consequence, spending five years exiled to central Russia, in he succeeded in leaving the Russian Empire and, like many of his compatriots , lived out the rest of his life abroad.
He died, probably of cholera , at Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire , where he had gone to help organize Polish and Jewish forces to fight Russia in the Crimean War. The region was on the periphery of Lithuania proper and had been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Adam was the second-born son in the family.
Mickiewicz spent his childhood in Navahrudak,   initially taught by his mother and private tutors. From to he attended a Dominican school following a curriculum that had been designed by the now-defunct Polish Commission for National Education , which had been the world's first ministry of education.
In September , Mickiewicz enrolled at the Imperial University of Vilnius , studying to be a teacher. After graduating, under the terms of his government scholarship, he taught secondary school at Kaunas from to In , while still a student, Mickiewicz, Tomasz Zan and other friends had created a secret organization, the Philomaths.
Mickiewicz was welcomed into the leading literary circles of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, where he became a great favorite for his agreeable manners and extraordinary talent for poetic improvisation. After serving five years of exile to Russia, Mickiewicz received permission to go abroad in On 1 June that year, he arrived in Weimar. Finally about October he took up residence in Rome, which he declared "the most amiable of foreign cities. On 31 July he arrived in Paris, accompanied by a close friend and fellow ex- Philomath , the future geologist and Chilean educator Ignacy Domeyko.
Pan Tadeusz , his longest poetic work, marked the end of his most productive literary period. Mickiewicz and his family lived in relative poverty, their major source of income being occasional publication of his work — not a very profitable endeavor.
Mickiewicz welcomed the Crimean War of , which he hoped would lead to a new European order including a restored independent Poland. Mickiewicz's remains were transported to France, boarding ship on 31 December , and were buried at Montmorency, Val-d'Oise , on 21 January Mickiewicz's childhood environment exerted a major influence on his literary work.
His first poems, such as the " Zima miejska " "City Winter" and the " Kartofla " "Potato" , were classical in style, influenced by Voltaire. One of his major works, Dziady Forefathers' Eve , comprises several parts written over an extended period of time. Mickiewicz's Konrad Wallenrod , a narrative poem describing battles of the Christian order of Teutonic Knights against the pagans of Lithuania ,  is a thinly veiled allusion to the long feud between Russia and Poland.
Pan Tadeusz published , another of his masterpieces, is an epic poem that draws a picture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the eve of Napoleon 's invasion of Russia. The occasional poems that Mickiewicz wrote in his final decades have been described as "exquisite, gnomic, extremely short and concise". In Polish literature they are examples of that pure poetry that verges on silence. In the s as early as ; as late as he worked on a futurist or science-fiction work, A History of the Future.
He has been described as a "Slavic bard". Mickiewicz's importance extends beyond literature to the broader spheres of culture and politics; Wyka writes that he was a "singer and epic poet of the Polish people, and a pilgrim for the freedom of nations. He carried us off on the surging billow of his inspiration and cast us into the world.
Its base carries the inscription, "To the Poet from the People". A number of museums in Europe are dedicated to Mickiewicz. Warsaw has an Adam Mickiewicz Museum of Literature. Much has been written about Mickiewicz, though the vast majority of this scholarly and popular literature is available only in Polish. Works devoted to him, according to Koropeckyi, author of a English biography, "could fill a good shelf or two".
Adam Mickiewicz, whose works were written in the Polish language ,  is generally known as a Polish poet. Some sources assert that Mickiewicz's mother was descended from a converted, Frankist Jewish family. To Mickiewicz, a splitting of that multicultural state into separate entities, due to trends such as Lithuanian separatism , was undesirable,  if not outright unthinkable.
Ojczyzno moja! It is generally accepted, however, that Mickiewicz, when referring to Lithuania, meant a historical region rather than a linguistic and cultural entity, and he often applied the term "Lithuanian" to the Slavic inhabitants of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania see Litvin.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the surname, see Mickiewicz surname. Retrieved 20 August Treugutt: Mickiewicz — domowy i daleki. Warszawa , p. Mickiewicz: Ballady i romanse. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Jakobsonian poetics and Slavic narrative: from Pushkin to Solzhenitsyn. Duke University Press. Retrieved 23 February Budowniczowie gwiazd. Krajowa Agencja Wydawn.
Retrieved 17 March Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Lituanus Volume 53, No 3 — Fall Retrieved 24 April Wallstein Verlag. The History of Polish Literature. University of California Press. Retrieved 16 March Adam Mickiewicz: The Life of a Romantic.
Cornell University Press. Retrieved 24 March XX, , p. Wulff Education in Poland: Past, Present, and Future. University Press of America. Retrieved 6 April Alvis Religion and the rise of nationalism: a profile of an East-Central European city. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 12 January Encyclopedia of the romantic era, —, Volume 2. Wanderers across language: exile in Irish and Polish literature of the twentieth century.
Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 18 June Adam Mickiewicz: the national poet of Poland. New York: J. Retrieved 14 April Literatura polska: przewodnik encyklopedyczny, Volume 1: A—M. President of the Republic of Lithuania.
University of Chicago Press. Polish prose and verse: a selection with an introductory essay. University of London, Athlone Press. Retrieved 10 April Poems by Adam Mickiewicz. The Political History of Poland. Polish Book Importing Co. He feels for millions and is pleading before God for their happiness and spiritual perfection. Adam Mickiewicz. Warsaw and surroundings.
Warsaw: Festina. The Adam Mickiewicz Monument was unveiled in to mark the th anniversary of the great romantic poet's birth.
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