In order to set up a list of libraries that you have access to, you must first login or sign up. Then set up a personal list of libraries from your profile page by clicking on your user name at the top right of any screen. You also may like to try some of these bookshops , which may or may not sell this item. The National Library may be able to supply you with a photocopy or electronic copy of all or part of this item, for a fee, depending on copyright restrictions.
|Published (Last):||24 August 2013|
|PDF File Size:||20.58 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||9.38 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
His works span the colonial period under Dutch rule, Indonesia's struggle for independence, its occupation by Japan during the Second World War , as well as the post-colonial authoritarian regimes of Sukarno and Suharto , and are infused with personal and national history. He was imprisoned under the Dutch government from to , and again under the Suharto regime from to Pramoedya's writings sometimes fell out of favour with the colonial and later the authoritarian native governments in power.
He faced censorship in Indonesia during the pre- Refomasi era even though he was well-known outside Indonesia. The Dutch imprisoned him from to during the War of Independence During the transition to the Suharto regime , he was caught up in the shifting tides of political change and power struggles. Suharto had him imprisoned from to on the Maluku island of Buru and branded him a Communist. He was seen as a holdover from the previous regime, despite having struggled with the Sukarno regime.
It was on the Island of Buru that he composed his most famous work, the Buru Quartet. Not permitted access to writing materials, he recited the story orally to other prisoners before it was written down and smuggled out. Pramoedya opposed some policies of founding President Sukarno as well as the New Order regime of Suharto , Sukarno's successor.
Political criticisms were often subtle in his writing, although he was outspoken against colonialism, racism and corruption of the Indonesian new government.
Pramoedya was born on 6 February , in the town of Blora in the heartland of Java ,  then a part of the Dutch East Indies. He was the firstborn son in his family; his father was a teacher, who was also active in Boedi Oetomo the first recognized indigenous national organization in Indonesia and his mother was a rice trader.
His maternal grandfather had taken the pilgrimage to Mecca. However, he felt that the family name Mastoer his father's name seemed too aristocratic. The Javanese prefix "Mas" refers to a man of the higher rank in a noble family. Consequently, he omitted "Mas" and kept Toer as his family name.
He went on to the Radio Vocational School in Surabaya but had barely graduated from the school when Japan invaded Surabaya He believed the Japanese to be the lesser of two evils, compared to the Dutch.
He worked as a typist for a Japanese newspaper in Jakarta. As the war went on, however, Indonesians were dismayed by the austerity of wartime rationing and by increasingly harsh measures taken by the Japanese military. The Nationalist forces loyal to Sukarno switched their support to the incoming Allies against Japan; all indications are that Pramoedya did as well. On 17 August , after the news of Allied victory over Japan reached Indonesia, Sukarno proclaimed Indonesian independence.
In this war, Pramoedya joined a paramilitary group in Karawang, Kranji West Java and eventually was stationed in Jakarta. During this time he wrote short stories and books, as well as propaganda for the Nationalist cause. He was eventually imprisoned by the Dutch in Jakarta in and remained there until , the year the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence. While imprisoned in Bukit Duri from to for his role in the Indonesian Revolution, he wrote his first major novel The Fugitive.
In the first years after the struggle for independence, Pramoedya wrote several works of fiction dealing with the problems of the newly founded nation, as well as semi-autobiographical works based on his wartime memoirs.
He was soon able to live in the Netherlands as part of a cultural exchange program. In the years that followed, he took an interest in several other cultural exchanges, including trips to the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China , as well as translations of Russian writers Maxim Gorky and Leo Tolstoy. In Indonesia, Pramoedya built up a reputation as a literary and social critic, joining the left-wing writers' group Lekra and writing in various newspapers and literary journals.
His writing style became more politically charged, as evidenced in his story Korupsi Corruption , a critical fiction of a civil servant who falls into the trap of corruption. This created friction between him and the government of Sukarno. From the late s, Pramoedya began teaching literary history at the left-wing Universitas Res Publica. As he prepared material, he began to realise that the study of Indonesian language and literature had been distorted by the Dutch colonial authorities.
He sought out materials that had been ignored by colonial educational institutions, and which had continued to be ignored after independence. Having spent time in China, he became greatly sympathetic to the Indonesian Chinese over the persecutions they faced in post-colonial Indonesia. Most notably, he published a series of letters addressed to an imaginary Chinese correspondent discussing the history of the Indonesian Chinese, called Hoakiau di Indonesia History of the Overseas Chinese in Indonesia.
He criticised the government for being too centred on Java and insensitive to the needs and desires of the other regions and peoples of Indonesia. As a result, he was arrested by the Indonesian military and jailed at Cipinang prison for nine months. In an October coup, the army took power after alleging that the assassination of several senior generals was masterminded by the Communist Party of Indonesia PKI.
The transition to Suharto's New Order followed, and Pramoedya's position as the head of People's Cultural Organisation, a literary group with connections to the PKI, caused him to be considered a communist and enemy of the "New Order" regime. During the violent anti-Communist purge , he was arrested, beaten, and imprisoned by Suharto's government and named a tapol "political prisoner".
His books were banned from circulation, and he was imprisoned without trial, first in Nusa Kambangan off the southern coast of Java, and then in the penal colony of Buru in the eastern islands of the Indonesian archipelago. He was banned from writing during his imprisonment on the island of Buru but still managed to compose - orally - his best-known series of work to date, the Buru Quartet , a series of four historical fiction novels chronicling the development of Indonesian nationalism and based in part on his own experiences growing up.
The main character of the series, Minke, a Javanese minor royal, was based in part on an Indonesian journalist active in the nationalist movement, Tirto Adhi Surjo. The quartet includes strong female characters of Indonesian and Chinese ethnicity and addresses the discrimination and indignities of living under colonial rule, and the struggle for personal and national political independence.
Like much of Pramoedya's work, it tells personal stories and focuses on individuals caught up in the tide of a nation's history.
Pramoedya had researched for the books before his imprisonment in the Buru prison camp. When he was arrested, his library was burned, and much of his collection and early writings were lost. On the prison colony island of Buru, he was not permitted even to have a pencil. Doubting that he would ever be able to write the novels down himself, he narrated them to his fellow prisoners. With the support of the other prisoners who took on extra labour to reduce his workload, Pramoedya was eventually able to write the novels down, and the published works derived their name "Buru Quartet" from the prison where he produced them.
They have been collected and published in English translated by Max Lane and Indonesian , as well as many other languages.
Though the work is considered a classic by many outside of Indonesia, the publication was banned in Indonesia, causing one of the most famous of Indonesia's literary works to be mostly unavailable to the country's people whose history it addressed. Copies were scanned by Indonesians abroad and distributed via the Internet to people inside the country. Pramoedya's works on colonial Indonesia recognised the importance of Islam as a vehicle for widespread opposition to the Dutch, but his works are not overtly religious.
He rejected those who used religion to deny critical thinking, and on occasion wrote with considerable negativity to the religiously pious. Pramoedya was released from imprisonment in but remained under house arrest in Jakarta until During this time he released The Girl From the Coast , another semi-fictional novel based on his grandmother's own experience volumes 2 and 3 of this work were destroyed along with his library in He also wrote Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu ; A Mute's Soliloquy , an autobiography based on the letters that he wrote for his daughter from imprisonment in Buru but were not allowed to be sent, and Arus Balik He wrote many columns and short articles criticising the Indonesian government.
He wrote a book Perawan Remaja dalam Cengkeraman Militer Young Virgins in the Military's Grip , a documentary written showcasing the plight of Javanese women who were forced to become comfort women during the Japanese occupation and were subsequently subject to oppression by their own Indonesian society.
The women were brought to Buru where they were sexually abused by the Japanese and ended up staying there instead of returning to Java. Pramoedya's fellow political prisoners were able to meet some of these women generally only once and relate this information to Pramoedya, who wrote it down in narrative form in the s, providing the basis for the book published in Pramoedya was hospitalised on 27 April , for complications brought on by diabetes and heart disease.
He was also a heavy smoker of Kretek clove cigarettes and had endured years of abuse while in detention. Pramoedya earned several accolades and was frequently discussed as Indonesia's and Southeast Asia's best candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Pramoedya's writings on Indonesia address the international and regional currents caused by political events in history and how these events flowed through his homeland and buffeted its people.
Pramoedya also shares a personal history of hardship and detention for his efforts of self-expression and the political aspects of his writings and struggled against the censorship of his work by the leaders of his own people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indonesian writer. This Indonesian name does not have a family name. In Schellinger, Paul ed. Encyclopedia of the Novel. Chicago, London: Fitzroy Dearborn. A History of Modern Indonesia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Categories : births deaths Deaths from diabetes Indonesian male novelists Indonesian prisoners and detainees Indonesian socialists Indonesian male writers Javanese people People from Central Java 20th-century novelists Inmates of Nusa Kambangan prison 20th-century male writers. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, s. Novelist , Essayist.
ISBN 13: 9789798659119
The concept of leadership is not only useful for the leader but it is also useful for everyone who is led, meaning that by understanding the concept of good leadership, a leader will be able to do what he should do and how the follower should shows their loyalty and dedication to the leader. By using the leadership role contained in the Arok Dedes novel written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, the objectives to be achieved in this study were 1 reveals patterns how Arok leads, 2 reveals leadership perspective of Asthabrata Arok, and 3 knowing the relevance Arok leadership in relation to the present leadership and the future leadership. The method used in the data collection is the literature study. The data analysis is carried out by reconstruction and reflection text text meaning , then proceed with interpretation by evaluating the perspective of Asthabrata leadership and correlate the text with the concept of leadership in the future leadership. The result of the analysis shows that the leadership pattern of Arok reflects strong leadership and fairness. Arok leadership represents the leadership of Asthabrata. The character of leadership is very relevant to be applied in order to leading a nation in which experiencing a crisis of leadership like today.
We apologize for the inconvenience...
His works span the colonial period under Dutch rule, Indonesia's struggle for independence, its occupation by Japan during the Second World War , as well as the post-colonial authoritarian regimes of Sukarno and Suharto , and are infused with personal and national history. He was imprisoned under the Dutch government from to , and again under the Suharto regime from to Pramoedya's writings sometimes fell out of favour with the colonial and later the authoritarian native governments in power. He faced censorship in Indonesia during the pre- Refomasi era even though he was well-known outside Indonesia. The Dutch imprisoned him from to during the War of Independence During the transition to the Suharto regime , he was caught up in the shifting tides of political change and power struggles. Suharto had him imprisoned from to on the Maluku island of Buru and branded him a Communist.