Artibeus jamaicensis Jamaican Fruit-eating Bat is a species of bats in the family New World leaf-nosed bats. It is found in the Neotropics and the Nearctic. It is a frugivore. Individuals are known to live for months and can grow to Reproduction is viviparous and dioecious.
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The northern range of Artibeus jamaicensis extends into central Mexico and continues south throughout Central America, and into northern South America.
In South America, A. Resident populations have been reported in the lower Florida Keys. The distribution of A. The range of A. Artibeus jamaicensis is primarily found in mature lowland rainforests, but lives in a variety of habitats including seasonal dry forests, deciduous forests, and human plantations. This species uses an array of different roosts including hollowed trees, dense foliage, caves, and sometimes even buildings. Along with several other species of the family Phyllostomidae , A.
They have been found in a wide range of elevations from sea level to m. Artibeus jamaicensis weighs between 40 and 60 g, and reaches 70 to 85 mm in length with a wingspan ranging from 48 to 67 mm wide. It has short fur that is either brownish, grayish or black in color.
Hair roots are white giving A. Ventral pelage is usually lighter than dorsal pelage and no dorsal line is present. The genus Artibeus is characterized by four white facial stripes, one above and below each eye. These stripes are distinct on A. This species lacks an external tail, and the naked uropatagium is a characteristic not present in other members of the genus. Like other phyllostomatids , members of this species have a well-developed noseleaf, which is broad, fleshy, and spear-shaped.
Artibeus jamaicensis has large canines relative to other members of the genus, which are used for impaling the hard skinned unripe fruit they eat. Artibeus jamaicensis also has a characteristic V-shaped row of bumps on its chin.
Six subspecies of A. Artibeus jamaicensis is polygynous, and individuals males defend harems of 4 to 18 females and their young. Males of this species are known to form stable, sized-based hierarchies. Larger, heavier males successfully defend larger harems, and dominant males remain with their harems for multiple years. However, females frequently move among harems, and solitary females are sometimes incorporated into existing harems.
Reproduction is not limited to dominant males as bachelor males occasionally copulate with solitary females. At night, dominant males defend their roost from rival males. The reproductive cycle of Artibeus jamaicensis alternates between periods of normal and delayed development and is best described as seasonal polyestry. In late March or early April, females give birth to a single pup.
Immediately following parturition, females enter postpartum estrous and may be pregnant and lactating at the same time. Following a gestation period of no more that 4 months, females give birth to another pup around late July or early August. Again, parturition is followed by a postpartum estrous; however, the resulting blastocyst implants in the uterus and becomes dormant for 2.
In mid-November the blastocyst resumes development, and the pregnant females give birth to a single young in late March or early April. On rare occasions, females give birth to twins. Research suggests that this pattern of delayed development synchronizes the birth of young with the end of the dry season, which allows weaning to occur when large fruits are at peak availability.
Acyclic reproductive patterns are seen in some populations in Central Mexico and Columbia. Reproductive cycles are likely moderated by food abundance and the timing of wet and dry seasons.
Artibeus jamaicensis can fly by 31 to 51 days after birth and reaches adult size around 80 days old. Little is know about parental care in Artibeus jamaicensis. Like all mammals, mothers provision and protect young while carrying them in the womb and continues until weaning. Prior to learning how to fly, pups are carried by their mothers while they forage for food. Little is known about the lifespan of Jamaican fruit-eating bats. One individual in the wild was recaptured 7 years after it had been tagged.
Some sources report a lifespan of up to 9 years in the wild. Captive individuals can live to be more than 10 years old. Tent construction using the pinnate palms of Scheelea rostrata is a common practice by Artibeus jamaicensis.
Other plants species including Geonoma congesta , Bactris wendlandian , and Asterogyne martiana are also used to build tents. Artibeus jamaicensis shows preference for plants with broader leaves, which may serve as better protection against the weather.
Tents may also provide additional protection against predators. To construct tents, bats chew along the central vein of the leaves, removing small pieces of tissue along the way.
The claws are also used to perforate leaves. These perforations cause the leaves to fold perpendicular to the central vein, resulting in a lanceolate tent. Artibeus jamaicensis is nocturnal and forages during the night. Although little is know of their actual home range size, Jamaican fruit-eating bats fly up to 8 km each night to forage. Once a fruit is selected, an additional 25 to m is flown to a feeding roost where the fruit is consumed.
Jamaican fruit-eating bats use echolocation as their primary means of orientation. Olfaction and sight are also used to detect food. Although many microchiropterans emit sound pulses orally, Artibeus jamaicensis emits sound pulses through its noseleaf while its mouth is closed. One researcher described the noseleaf of Jamaican fruit-eating bats as "an acoustic lens that focuses the outgoing sound into a narrow beam.
These sounds provide short range information on the location of food in densely vegetated areas. Pups use rapidly repeated long and short notes i. Jamaican Fruit-Eating bats produce warning calls when captured in mist nets, which attract conspecifics as well as additional species.
Jamaican fruit-eating bats respond to other species' alarm calls as well. Distress calls also warn conspecifics of approaching predators. As its common name suggests, Jamaican fruit-eating bats are frugivores and feed primarily on Ficus figs. They also consume pollen, nectar, flower parts, and insects during the dry season when fruit is less abundant. Other members of Artibeus are known to use fruits such as mangoes, avocados, and bananas.
Jamaican fruit-eating bats travel up to 8 km a night to forage. Once they select a fruit, they may fly an additional 25 to meters to find a feeding roost rather than consuming the fruit where it was found. Once at this roost, bats use their robust molars , modified for crushing fruit, to mash up the fruit, which is usually unripe and often hard. They suck out the juices and spit out the leftover pulp with any seeds remaining inside.
One research team described the feeding habits of Artibeus as causing "a continuous rain of fruit and bat excrement throughout much of the night and with sunrise came herds of aggressive local pigs to gather the night's fallout of figs. Given the relatively short gut retention time, it is unlikely that digestion is aided by bacteria. It is not uncommon to see multiple individuals feeding at the same Ficus tree.
Jamaican fruit-eating bats are preyed upon by a number of owl species, including barn owls , spectacled owls , mottled owls , and Guatemalan screech owls. Other predators include common opossums , gray four-eyed opossums , boa constrictors , white-nosed coatis , false vampire bats , and Bat Falcons.
One week before and after a full moon, Jamaican fruit-eating bats cease feeding activity and return to their day roost while the moon is at its highest peak and cloud cover does not prevent this behavior.
When the moon is not full, Jamaican fruit-eating bats forage continuously though the night. Lunar phobia is thought to be an adaption to nocturnal predators that detect prey visually. Because they roost in dark habitats and are nocturnal, their dark coloration helps camouflage them from potential predators. Beletsky, ; Beletsky, ; Morrison, a. Artibeus jamaicensis plays an important role in the dispersal of seeds of many tropical fruits.
Additionally, it disperses seeds crucial for secondary and successional growth in areas disturbed by natural disasters, which helps restore forests following disturbance and helps maintain plant species richness. It is possible that some species depend on the uneaten remains of discarded fruit. One research team described the foraging habits of Artibeus as "a continuous rain of fruit and bat excrement throughout much of the night and with sunrise came herds of aggressive local pigs to gather the night's fallout of figs.
Jamaican fruit-eating bats are host to an array of ectoparasites, including four species of ticks from the families Ixodidae and Argasidae , six species of mites from the families Trombiculidae , Macronyssidae , Gastronyssidae , Spinturnicidae , and Ercynetidae , and four species of batflies from the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae.
Little information is available on endoparasites specific to A. The seeds of market fruits sold by humans are dispersed by Artibeus jamicensis. This species is also helps pollinate some economically-important crop plants. Although insects make up only a minor part of their diet, A. Artibeus jamaicensis is known to occasionally forage on cultivated fruit crops.
Miller, et al. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
At about the time a female gives birth e. Embryos produced at this mating develop only as far as a hollow ball of cells the blastocyst and then become quiescent, entering a state of suspended animation or embryonic diapause. The hormonal signal prolactin which blocks further development of the blastocyst is produced in response to the sucking stimulus from the young in the pouch. When sucking decreases as the young begins to eat other food and to leave the pouch, or if the young is lost from the pouch, the quiescent blastocyst resumes development, the embryo is born, and the cycle begins again.
Jamaican fruit bat
The northern range of Artibeus jamaicensis extends into central Mexico and continues south throughout Central America, and into northern South America. In South America, A. Resident populations have been reported in the lower Florida Keys. The distribution of A. The range of A. Artibeus jamaicensis is primarily found in mature lowland rainforests, but lives in a variety of habitats including seasonal dry forests, deciduous forests, and human plantations. This species uses an array of different roosts including hollowed trees, dense foliage, caves, and sometimes even buildings.
Pronunciation: ar- tib -ee-us ja-may- ken -sis. The Jamaican fruit-eating bat eats figs and many other tropical forest fruits, including the pulpy layer surrounding nuts, such as the wild almond. After carrying fruits away to eat them, the bat then drops the nuts, dispersing seeds for future trees. In addition to fruit, this species also eats pollen, nectar, and a few insects.
Jamaican Fruit Eating Bat
Jamaican fruit bat , Artibeus jamaicensis , also called Mexican fruit bat , a common and widespread bat of Central and South America with a fleshy nose leaf resembling a third ear positioned on the muzzle. The Jamaican fruit bat has gray-brown fur and indistinct, whitish facial stripes. It has no tail, and the membrane stretching between its legs is small and u-shaped. Its length is about 9 cm 3. Although compared to other New World fruit bats, the Jamaican fruit bat is one of the heavier species, weighing 40—65 grams 1.
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