Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Morfologia das papilas linguais de coelhos Oryctolagus cuniculus Lagomorpha: Leporidae. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus.
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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Morfologia das papilas linguais de coelhos Oryctolagus cuniculus Lagomorpha: Leporidae. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment.
Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite O-desmethyltramadol.
No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods.
Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits. The morphology of the stomach may vary between species as a function of feeding habits, differences on the cellular composition of the mucosa of the stomach wall and the different functions it carries out.
Morphofunctional variations of the stomach of several animals along phylogeny led us to investigate the morphology of the wall of the glandular stomach of rabbits. We used the stomachs of 32 young rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus from the White New Zealand strain, coming from the Experimenta Effects of animal type wild vs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus vs.
Post-weaning growth of endemic Iberian wild rabbit subspecies, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, kept in a semi-extensive enclosure : implications for management and conservation. Full Text Available Little is known about the endemic Iberian wild rabbit subspecies, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, despite its importance in Mediterranean ecosystems. We analysed post-weaning body weight and growth of individuals of the endemic Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus subspecies under semi-natural conditions in a breeding enclosure in central Portugal.
From these data, we described and estimated growth rates for juvenile and adult stages, and 3 sigmoidal growth models were developed. Body weight showed a linear growth of 0. Our data revealed that Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus seems to be smaller, grows less and for less time than Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus , according to the literature. Body weight of the studied individuals seems to be more similar to free-living than to cage-bred individuals, according to the literature.
These results should provide important indicators to assist managers and conservationists in accessing habitat quality for wild rabbit populations. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, and ecological effects in the United Kingdom. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By , genetic resistance had appeared. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring.
An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals.
Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus against myxomatosis improved their survival. For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis.
Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects.
We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment in a park near Paris, France wherein out of seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine.
The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0. Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide.
Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT and direct PCR, culture techniques.
Fifty-seven Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. Context-dependent responses to neighbours and strangers in wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus.
Territorial animals defend their territories against intruders. We explored in a wild social mammal, the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus , whether residents responded more aggressively to strangers or to neighbours dear enemy or nasty neighbour effects, respectively.
We simulated the intrusion of neighbours or strangers in different parts of the territory of wild European rabbits in a suburban area in central Spain.
For that, we placed faecal pellets of neighbouring or stranger rabbits in the territory of 5 rabbit colonies. Resident rabbits counter-marked preferably the odour stations with stranger odour, compared to the ones with neighbour odour, and they did not make a difference between neighbour and a non-odour control stimuli. The results suggest that rabbits show a dear enemy effect.
However, repeated intrusions escalated the responses of rabbits towards neighbours. The location within the territory or the sex of the stranger did not affect the level of response. We conclude that in rabbits the relative threat posed by the intruder triggers the intensity of the interaction.
All rights reserved. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Pazzini J. E-mail: josipazzini hotmail. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft.
The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results.
In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the. Ecto- and endoparasites in remaining population of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. Full Text Available An investigation of ecto- and endoparasites of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. Together five species of ectoparasites and seven species of endopara- sites was found in five specimens of host.
Except of petechial haemorrhagies inside both earlobes of one rabbit neither hyperkeratosis nor scale with any degrees of hairlessness were detected. Higher incidence of flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi could be important for spreading of myxomatosis.
In one rabbit abnormal damage of incisivi was found, which caused the highest documented incidence of acarids Cheyletiella parasitivorax ex. Handicapped hosts are not able to make clarify as effective as the healthy ones. All endoparasites were found in very low or middle intensity, which does not seem to be main cause of decreasing number of wild rabbits in monitored areas.
Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. Eleven of 16 The purpose of this study was to assess the tissue alterations in the temporomandibular joint TMJ of the New Zealand White rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L.
A total of 36 animals were used, thirty of which belonged to the experimental group and six to the control group. We established three experimental periods: 24 hours, three days and seven days. The control group animals were divided two by two; each pair followed the same experimental periods of the former one.
The experimental group animals were submitted to the use of a 0. All animals were euthanized, and the TMJs were removed. Using a microscope for examination we observed, in all experimental periods, the presence of intra-articular hemorrhage in the supra- and infra-disk compartments as well as in the retro-disk zone.
There were no inflammatory cells detected. The thickness of the condylar fibrocartilage presented significant alterations among the animals of the three experimental groups. In the left TMJs no inflammatory cells were detected. The results suggest that the insertion of a unilateral occlusal interference in rabbit back teeth does not cause any inflammatory intra-articular process within seven days; however, it does cause bilateral intra-articular hemorrhage and a larger compression of the condylar fibrocartilage in the joint opposite the side where the interference is placed.
We also concluded that, in order to do research on the temporomandibular joint using animals, it is necessary have an independent or separate group of animals as controls. Large-scale assessment of myxomatosis prevalence in European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus 60years after first outbreak in Spain. Myxomatosis is a viral disease that affects European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus worldwide.
In Spain, populations of wild rabbits drastically decreased in the s after the first outbreak of myxomatosis. Since that first appearance, it seems to be an annual epizootic in Spain with periodic outbreaks, predominantly in summer and autumn. Taking into account rabbit population structure, abundance, and genetic lineage, this paper attempts to make a large-scale characterization of myxomatosis seroprevalence based on the immune status of 29 rabbit populations distributed throughout Spain, where O.
A total of samples were collected between and , and seroprevalence of antibodies against Myxoma virus MYXV was determined. This suggests that prevalence is negatively related to the proportion of newborn and juvenile rabbits in a population.
Our results also showed that seroprevalence against MYXV tended to be higher in high-abundance populations. In contrast, no differences were detected in seroprevalence between rabbit subspecies. Based on the results, the establishment of a myxomatosis surveillance protocol is proposed. Full Text Available B-cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family BAFF is a major contributor to survival of B lymphocytes during development and maturation. Clinical trials targeting BAFF or its receptors are currently in progress.
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Laboratory of oxidasa, diferencias sexuales, ciclo estral, rata. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. Alguns frutos foram consumidos inteiros, enquanto que outros tiveram seu exocarpo ou suas sementes descartadas. CR-ir neurons concentrated in the GL, around the base of the olfactory glomeruli.
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La reproducción de vacas lecheras
Laboratory of oxidasa, diferencias sexuales, ciclo estral, rata. Body weight of the studied individuals seems to be more similar to free-living than to cage-bred individuals, according to the literature. Territorial animals defend their territories against intruders. The currently adopted disinfection process uses chloride. Full Text Available An investigation of ecto- and endoparasites of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L.
Los ganaderos ven grandes posibilidades comerciales en el ganado vacuno, pero todo depende de procesos estrictamente controlados. Lo que hacen los ganaderos con sus vacas es tratar de conocer el comportamiento reproductivo de cada uno de sus ejemplares. Hacer las cosas a tiempo es clave tener procesos efectivos. El proceso no es tan sencillo y puede generar cambios hormonales en el animal y en la leche producida. De esta manera, se mezcla el pasto con avena, yuca, granos de arroz, materias primas y aditivos especiales para neutralizar el PH de las levaduras implementadas.