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Please help us to share our service with your friends. Share Embed Donate. Pass, Honours and Engineering Students Dr. Giasuddin Ahmad. Dhaka , Ph. Shahabuddin, M. Formerly of the Department of Physics. Giasuddin Ahmad Ph. Dhcrka IrIAF. Pass and Subsidiary and B. In this textbook attempts have been made to guide the students so that they may proceed to record data systematically and then correlate them to get the results. At the end of each experiment relevent questions and their answers harre been provided, thus clarilying the theoretical aspect of the experiment.

Hor,vever, it should be remembered that they are purely suggestive and there is nothing special about any particular form of tl-bulation. Tables of physical constants and logarithmic and trigonometrical tables have been provided at the end of the book for ready reference. In writlng this book we consulted different books on practical physics specially those by Watson. Majumdar, Roy Choudhury, Ganguli, H.

Singh, J Chatterjee and K. Various theoretical books hive also been ArL 1. Saha, M. Head of the Department of Physics, E. University of Engineering and Techonlogr, Dacca, for hts keen interest in the 6ook an? We also like to thank our Art. Asadullah Khan. We gratefully acknowledge the debt we owe to Mr. Nurul Momen. Dac , M. Columbia for many valuable and constructive suggestions.

We also like to thank Mr. Zoberi and pearl for his active co-operation in bringing out this book. Thanks are also due to Mr. Anwar Ali of the Department of physics rvho helped us in getting the manuscript typed within a short time. The book has been hurried through the press and as such some printing mistakes might have crept in inspite of our best efforts. We shall -gratefully welcome any suggestion which may help to improve the book.

The slide callipers To measure the length of a rod with a vernier callipers. The screw gauge To measure the diameter of a piece of wire with a screw gauge and to find its 13 average cross-section 20 23 2. ArL 2. AIL Expt. To weigh a body by the method of Expt. To draw a graph showing the sensitivity of a balance with loads To determine the Young's modulus for the material of a wire by Searle's apparatus To determine the Young's modulus by the flexure of a beam bending method To determine Young's modulus Y , rigidity modulus n and Poisson's ratio o of a short wire by Searle's dynamic J.

The spherometer To determine the thickness of a glass plate wlth a spherometer Cathetometer oscillation method Expt. I t2 II. University of Engineering and Technologr. To determine the modulus of rigidity of a wire b1r statical method.

To determine the modulus of rigidity of a l5 18 24 30 32 34 37 39 43 50 55 59 wire by the method of oscillations IstJanuary, Giasuddin Ahmad Md. To determlne the moment of lnertia of a fly-wheel about its axis of rotation. To determine the value of g, acceleration due to gravity, by means of a compound pendulum To determlne the value of 'g, by Kater's reversible pendulum.

To determine the surface tension of water by capillary tube method and hence to veriff Jurin's law. To determine the surface tension of mercury and the angle of contact by Quincke s method. To determine the surface tension of a liquid by the method of ripples Rayleigh's method To determine the co-efficient of viscosity of a liqutd by its flow ilrrough a capillary tube.

To show To determlne the co-efficient of thermal conductivtty of a metal using Searle's Expt. ArL Expt. To determine the density of water at various temperature by means of a glass sinker III. HEAT correction Expt. Art Expt. E8 Magnetometers To deterrnine the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of a magnet by enrploying magnetometers To compare the n-ragnetic moments of two Expt.

ArL Art. JZi Expt. To determine a high resistance by the gB2 method of deflection To determine the value of low resistance by the method of fall of potential Mathiesen and Hopkin's method of projection To determine the electro-chemical eqrrivalent of copper by using an ammeter and copper voltameter Determination of electro-chemical equivalent of silver using an ampere balance 7 Potentiometer and its action Precautions to be taken in performing experiments with a potentiometer To determine the'e.

To measure the current flowlng through a resistance, by measuring the drop of potential across it, wlth the help of a K 66 Expt. J3-' l Expt. The triode val. To determine Stefan's constant. To determine the angle of prism by rotation of the prism table. To determine the refractive index of the material of a prism. To determine the refractive index of the material of the thin prism by the method of normal incidence. To calibrate a spectrometer. To determine the Cauchy's constants and the resolving power of the prism using a spectrometer.

To determine the wavelength of monochromatic light by Fresnel's bi-prism. To determine the thickness or refractive index of a very thin transparent plate. To determine the refractive index of a liquid available in minute quantities by Newton's rings. To determine the separation between D1 and D2 lines of sodium by Michelson interferometer. To determine refractive index or thickness of a film by Michelson intOrferometer.

To determine wavelength of monochromatic light by Michelson interferometer. In performing an experiment in the laboratory, one is required to revise thororrghly t. Thus practical classes serve as a sor[ of revision exercises of the theoretical lectures.

Moreorrer, laboratory work n-lakes a student methodical, accurate, diligent and trained to rules of discipline. The overall aims of the physics practical programme are to help the students learn a to experiment i.

Measurement of these quantities involves various errors which are enumerated below. This is due to the personal qualities of the workers. For example, different time keepers in a sport are found to record different times o[ start ancl finish.

Inexperienced observers or observers not in a normal state of health make errors of varying magnitude. Such errors may be eliminated by taking mean o[ several observations.

In determining the value of g by simple pendulum. Such errors are eliminated by different methods. Thus, these e. Exanrples of these errors are the zero-error in measuring instruments such as screw gauge, slide callipers, end-errors in a meter bridge etc.

In determining specific heat of solid or Iiquid by the method of mixture, the loss of heat by radiation is allwed to occur and then this loss is corrected for. Thus in an experiment with meter bridge in finding the null point, a tapping error is introduced owing to the fact that the pointer which indicates the position is not exactly situated above the fine edge of the jockey which makes contact with the bridge wire.

This is eliminated by obtaining two balance points after interchanging the resistance coils. Inspite of all corrections and precautions taken against all possible known causes, some errors due to unknown causes occur which affect the observations. Such errors are called accidental errors. Errors in such cases are reduced by taking a number of observations and finding their mean.

Due to carelessness in this respect an error in reading is inevitable' This error in. In order to avoid such errors the scale' straight or circular, is often placed over a mirror' An image of the objecL is formed in the mirror by reflection and the reading of the object is taken wi[hout ditticulty' 0 Level Errors: Instruments like a balance' spectrorfrEGr,-difficle etc, require levelling before use.

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