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The Interpretation of Dreams German : Die Traumdeutung is an book by Sigmund Freud , the founder of psychoanalysis , in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation , and discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism very literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel.
Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime. Dated , the book was first published in an edition of copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams later gained in popularity, and seven more editions were published in Freud's lifetime. Because of the book's length and complexity, Freud also wrote an abridged version called On Dreams.
The original text is widely regarded as one of Freud's most significant works. In a letter to Wilhelm Fliess , he wrote in commemoration of the place:. At the moment I see little prospect of it. While staying at Schloss Bellevue, Freud dreamed his famous dream of ' Irma's injection '. Dreams , in Freud's view, are formed as the result of two mental processes.
The first process involves unconscious forces that construct a wish that is expressed by the dream, and the second is the process of censorship that forcibly distorts the expression of the wish. Freud states: "My presumption that dreams can be interpreted at once puts me in opposition to the ruling theory of dreams and in fact to every theory of dreams Freud advanced the idea that an analyst can differentiate between the manifest content and latent content of a dream.
The manifest content refers to the remembered narrative that plays out in the dream itself. The latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream. During sleep, the unconscious condenses, displaces, and forms representations of the dream content, the latent content of which is often unrecognizable to the individual upon waking.
Critics have argued that Freud's theory of dreams requires sexual interpretation. Freud, however, contested this criticism, noting that "the assertion that all dreams require a sexual interpretation, against which critics rage so incessantly, occurs nowhere in my Interpretation of Dreams.
It is not to be found in any of the numerous editions of this book and is in obvious contradiction to other views expressed in it. Freud claimed that every dream has a connection point with an experience of the previous day.
Though, the connection may be minor, as the dream content can be selected from any part of the dreamer's life. Oftentimes people experience external stimuli, such as an alarm clock or music, being distorted and incorporated into their dreams.
Freud explained that this is because "the mind is withdrawn from the external world during sleep, and it is unable to give it a correct interpretation Freud believed that dreams were picture-puzzles, and though they may appear nonsensical and worthless on the surface, through the process of interpretation they can form a "poetical phrase of the greatest beauty and significance. Dreams are brief compared to the range and abundance of dream thoughts. Through condensation or compression, dream content can be presented in one dream.
Oftentimes, people may recall having more than one dream in a night. Freud explained that the content of all dreams occurring on the same night represents part of the same whole. Often the first dream is more distorted and the latter is more distinct.
Displacement of dream content has occurred when manifest content does not resemble the actual meaning of the dream. Displacement comes through the influence of a censorship agent. Representation in dreams is the causal relation between two things. Freud argues that two persons or objects can be combined into a single representation in a dream see Freud's dream of his uncle and Friend R.
It was re-published in in slightly larger form as a book. It follows chapter seven in The Interpretation of Dreams and in this edition, is fifty-three pages in length.
The English translation of On Dreams was first published in and the second English publication in the James Strachey translation from In chapter VI, page , he states: "It is the process of displacement which is chiefly responsible for our being unable to discover or recognize them in the dream-content" and he considers the issue of displacement in chapter VIII, page as: "the most striking of the dream-work.
I shall furthermore endeavor to explain the processes which give rise to the strangeness and obscurity of the dream, and to discover through them the psychic forces, which operate whether in combination or opposition, to produce the dream.
This accomplished by investigation will terminate as it will reach the point where the problem of the dream meets broader problems, the solution of which must be attempted through other material. Freud begins his book in the first chapter titled "The Scientific Literature on the Problems of the Dream" by reviewing different scientific views on dream interpretation, which he finds interesting but not adequate.
Freud describes three main types of dreams: 1. Direct prophecies received in the dream chrematismos, oraculum ; 2. The foretelling of a future event orama, visio 3. The symbolic dream, which requires interpretation Interpretation of Dreams 5. Much of Freud's sources for analysis are in literature. The Interpretation of Dreams was first published in an edition of only copies, and these took eight years to sell.
The work subsequently gained popularity, and seven more editions were printed in Freud's lifetime, the last in The classicist Norman O. Brown described The Interpretation of Dreams as one of the great applications and extensions of the Socratic maxim "know thyself" in Life Against Death He argued that like Freud's other works it posits a "semantics of desire". He suggested that the book could be considered a form of autobiographical writing and compared it to the naturalist Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species They argued, however, that Freud's analysis of the dream of Irma's injection was partly based on Belgian psychologist Joseph Delboeuf 's analysis of a dream in Sleep and Dreams.
In their view, The Interpretation of Dreams should be placed in the context of the "introspective hypnotism" practiced by figures such as Auguste Forel , Eugen Bleuler, and Oskar Vogt. James Lieberman and Robert Kramer wrote in an introduction to a collection of letters between Freud and the psychoanalyst Otto Rank that Rank was impressed by The Interpretation of Dreams when he read it in , and was moved to write a critical reanalysis of one of Freud's own dreams.
They suggested that it may have been partly this reanalysis that brought Rank to Freud's attention. They noted that it was with Rank's help that Freud published the second edition of The Interpretation of Dreams in The first translation from German into English was completed by A. Brill , a Freudian psychoanalyst.
Years later, an authorized translation by James Strachey was published. The most recent English translation is by Joyce Crick. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Interpretation of dreams disambiguation. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. Child psychoanalysis Depth psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries. Retrieved August 21, Freud: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. While staying at the Schloss Bellevue [ The interpretation of dreams. Strachey, James. Strachey ed. The Interpretation of Dreams. Basic Books. London: The Hogarth Press.
Introduction Hanover: Wesleyan University Press. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press. The Masks of God: Creative Mythology. Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books. Logical Investigations Volume 1. Milton Park: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. James; Kramer, Robert Contemporary Psychoanalysis , 49 2 : Sigmund Freud.
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Sigmund Freud - Oe 2 - Interpretarea Viselor.pdf
Sigmund Freud Interpretarea Viselor